Today in History -- Monday, April 9 (Kristen Stewart, Elle Fanning)
The Associated Press
Today is Monday, April 9, the 100th day of 2012. There are 266 days left in the year.
Today's Highlight in History:
On April 9, 1942, during World War II, American and Philippine defenders on Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by the notorious Bataan Death March which claimed thousands of lives.
On this date:
In 193, Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in
In 475, Byzantine Emperor Basiliscus issues a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops of his empire, supporting the Monophysite christological position.
In 1241, Battle of Liegnitz: Mongol forces defeat the Polish and German armies.
In 1388, Despite being outnumbered 16 to 1, forces of the Old Swiss Confederacy are victorious over the Archduchy of Austria in the Battle of N√§fels.
In 1413, Henry V is crowned King of England.
In 1440, Christopher of Bavaria is appointed King of Denmark.
In 1454, The Treaty of Lodi is signed, establishing a balance of power among northern Italian city-states for almost 50 years.
In 1511, St John's College, Cambridge, England, founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort, receives its charter.
In 1585, The expedition organised by Sir Walter Raleigh departs England for Roanoke Island (now in North Carolina) to establish the Roanoke Colony.
In 1609, Eighty Years' War: Spain and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of Antwerp to initiate twelve years of truce.
In 1682, Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims it for France and names it Louisiana.
In 1782, American War of Independence: Battle of the Saintes begins.
In 1860, On his phonautograph machine, √Čdouard-L√©on Scott de Martinville makes the oldest known recording of an audible human
In 1852, At a general conference of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Brigham Young explains the Adam‚ÄďGod doctrine, an important part of the theology of Mormon fundamentalism.
In 1865, American Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war.
In 1867, Alaska purchase: Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.
In 1909, The U.S. Congress passes the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act.
In 1914, Mexican Revolution: One of the world's first naval/air skirmishes takes place off the coast of western
In 1916, World War I: The Battle of Verdun, German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.
In 1917, World War I: The Battle of Arras, the battle begins with Canadian Corps executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.
In 1918, World War I: The Battle of the Lys, the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps is crushed by the German forces during what is called the Spring Offensive on the Belgian region of Flanders.
In 1918, The National Council of Bessarabia proclaims union with the Kingdom of Romania.
In 1937, The Kamikaze arrives at Croydon Airport in London, it is the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.
In 1939, Marian Anderson sings at the
Lincoln Memorial, after being denied the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution's Constitution Hall.
In 1940, World War II: Operation Weser√ľbung, Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
In 1942, World War II: The Japanese Navy launches an air raid on Trincomalee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka); Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire are sunk off the island's east coast.
In 1945, World War II: The German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer is sunk.
In 1945, World War II: The Battle of K√∂nigsberg, in East Prussia, ends.
In 1945, The United States Atomic Energy Commission is formed.
In 1947, The
Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoes kill 181 and injure 970 in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
In 1947, The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride begins through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws. The riders wanted enforcement of the United States Supreme Court's 1946 Irene Morgan decision that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.
In 1948, Jorge Eli√©cer Gait√°n's assassination provokes a violent riot in Bogot√° (the Bogotazo), and a further ten years of violence in Colombia known as La violencia.
In 1948, Fighters from the Irgun and Lehi Zionist paramilitary groups attacked Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, killing over 100.
In 1952, Hugo Ballivian's government is overthrown by the Bolivian National Revolution, starting a
period of agrarian reform, universal suffrage and the nationalisation of tin mines
In 1957, The Suez Canal in Egypt is cleared and opens to shipping.
In 1959, NASA presented its first seven astronauts: Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard and Donald Slayton.
In 1959, Architect Frank Lloyd Wright, 91, died in Phoenix, Ariz.
In 1961, The Pacific Electric Railway in Los Angeles, once the largest electric railway in the world, ends operations.
In 1962, "West Side Story" won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1961; Sophia Loren was named Best Actress for "Two Women," while Maximilian Schell received the Best Actor Oscar for "Judgment at
In 1965, the newly built Astrodome in Houston featured its first baseball game, an exhibition between the Astros and the New York Yankees. (The Astros won, 2-1, in 12 innings.)
In 1967, The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) makes its maiden flight.
In 1968, Funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr.
In 1969, The "Chicago Eight" plead not guilty to federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.
In 1969, The first British-built Concorde 002 makes its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford.
In 1975, The first game of the Philippine Basketball Association, the second oldest professional basketball
league in the world.
In 1975, 8 people in South Korea, who are involved in People's Revolutionary Party Incident, are hanged.
In 1980, The Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein kills philosopher Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and his sister Bint al-Huda after three days of torture.
In 1981, The U.S. Navy nuclear submarine USS George Washington (SSBN-598) accidentally collides with the Nissho Maru, a Japanese cargo ship, sinking it.
In 1983, the space shuttle Challenger ended its first mission with a safe landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
In 1989, The April 9 tragedy in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR an anti-Soviet peaceful demonstration and hunger strikes, demanding restoration of Georgian independence is
dispersed by the Soviet army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
In 1992, A U.S. Federal Court finds former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega guilty of drug and racketeering charges. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison.
In 1992, John Major's Conservative Party wins an unprecedented fourth general election victory in the United Kingdom.
In 1996, in a dramatic shift of purse-string power, President Bill Clinton signed a line-item veto bill into law. (However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the veto in 1998.)
In 2003, Invasion of Iraq: Baghdad falls to American forces; Saddam Hussein statue topples as Iraqis turn on symbols of their former leader, pulling down the statue and tearing it to pieces.
In 2005, Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall; Charles, Prince of Wales marries Camilla Parker Bowles in a civil ceremony at Windsor's Guildhall.
In 2009, In Tbilisi, Georgia, up to 60,000 people protest against the government of Mikheil Saakashvili.
In 2011, A gunman murdered five people, injured eleven, and committed suicide in a mall in the Netherlands.
Ten years ago: Former Arthur Andersen auditor David B. Duncan pleaded guilty in federal court in Houston to ordering the shredding of Enron documents, and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors (however, Duncan later withdrew his plea). Palestinian militants killed 13 Israeli soldiers during intense fighting in a refugee camp in Jenin, West Bank. Britain said goodbye to the Queen Mother Elizabeth
with a funeral at Westminster Abbey. Figure skater Michelle Kwan won the 2001 Sullivan Award as the nation's top amateur athlete.
Five years ago: Tens of thousands of Shiites marched in Iraq to demand that U.S. forces leave their country; some ripped apart American flags and tromped across a Stars and Stripes rug. President George W. Bush visited the U.S.-Mexico border to tout a guest worker program for immigrants.
One year ago: A man armed with several weapons opened fire in a crowded shopping mall in the Netherlands, killing six people before committing suicide. Minnesota Duluth won a 3-2 victory over Michigan in the NCAA men's ice hockey championship game, the first national title for the Bulldogs. Sidney Lumet, the award-winning director of such American film classics as "Network," ''Serpico," ''Dog Day Afternoon" and "12
Angry Men," died in New York at age 86.
Today's Birthdays: Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner is 86. Naturalist Jim Fowler is 80. Actor Jean-Paul Belmondo is 79. Actress Michael Learned is 73. Country singer Margo Smith is 70. Country singer Hal Ketchum is 59. Actor Dennis Quaid is 58. Humorist Jimmy Tingle is 57. Country musician Dave Innis (Restless Heart) is 53. Actress-sports reporter Lisa Guerrero is 48. Actor Mark Pellegrino is 47. Actress-model Paulina Porizkova is 47. Actress Cynthia Nixon is 46. Rock singer Kevin Martin (Candlebox) is 43. Rock singer Gerard Way (My Chemical Romance) is 35. Actress Keshia Knight Pulliam is 33. Rock musician Albert Hammond Jr. (The Strokes) is 32. Actor Charlie Hunnam is 32. Actor Ryan Northcott is 32. Actor Arlen Escarpeta is 31. Actor Jay Baruchel is 30. Actress Leighton Meester is 26. Actor-singer Jesse McCartney is 25. Rhythm-and-blues singer
Jazmine Sullivan is 25. Actress Kristen Stewart is 22. Actress Elle Fanning is 14. Classical crossover singer Jackie Evancho (TV: "America's Got Talent") is 12.
Other notable birthdays, April 9:
1937, Marty Krofft, Canadian television producer
1944, Joe Brinkman, American baseball umpire
1945, Steve Gadd, American drummer (Stuff)
1945, Peter Gammons, American journalist
1946, Nate Colbert, American baseball player
1961, Kirk McCaskill, Canadian baseball and hockey player
1963, Marc Jacobs, American fashion designer
Joe Scarborough, American television host, lawyer, author, and politician
1964, Rob Awalt, American football player
1965, Jeff Zucker, American television executive
1971, Jacques Villeneuve, Canadian race car driver
1974, Jenna Jameson, American porn actress and model
1978, Rachel Stevens, English singer, dancer, and actress (S Club)
1978, Veronica Taylor, American actress
1979, Jeff Reed, American football player
1981, Dennis Sarfate, American baseball player
1984, Adam Loewen, Canadian baseball
1985, David Robertson, American baseball player
Born on this day, April 9, passed away:
1889, Efrem Zimbalist Sr., Russian violinist (d. 1985)
1898, Earl "Curly" Lambeau, American football coach and executive (d. 1965)
1898, Paul Robeson, American singer, actor, and activist (d. 1976)
1900, Allen Jenkins, American actor (d. 1974)
1903, Ward Bond, American actor (d. 1960)
1905, J. William Fulbright, American politician (d. 1995)
1910, Abraham Ribicoff, American politician (d.
1928, Paul Arizin, American basketball player (d. 2006)
1932, Carl Perkins, American singer and guitarist (d. 1998)
1935, Avery Schreiber, American actor (d. 2002)
1938, Rockin' Sidney, American singer and musician (d. 1998)
1942, Brandon De Wilde, American actor (d. 1972)
1943, Terry Knight, American singer-songwriter, producer, and promoter (Terry Knight and the Pack) (d. 2004)
1957, Seve Ballesteros, Spanish golfer (d. 2011)
Notable deaths, April 9:
1626, Sir Francis Bacon, English statesman (b.
1959, Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect (b. 1867)
1963, Eddie Edwards, American jazz musician (Original Dixieland Jass Band) (b. 1891)
1976, Phil Ochs, American singer-songwriter (b. 1940)
1988, Brook Benton, American singer and songwriter (b. 1931)
1988, David Prater, American singer (Sam & Dave) (b. 1937)
1997, Mae Boren Axton, American singer and songwriter (b. 1914)
2001, Willie Stargell, American baseball player (b. 1940)
2006, Billy Hitchcock, American baseball player and coach (b. 1916)
Adenhart, American baseball player (b. 1986)
2011, Sidney Lumet, American director (b. 1924)
Thought for Today: "Thinking is like loving or dying. Each of us must do it for ourselves." ‚ÄĒ Josiah Royce, American philosopher (1855-1916).